女青年领袖计划


任务

Since its founding in 1997, YWLP has grown to serve 7th and 8th grade girls in four Central Virginia middle schools by pairing them with UVA undergraduate mentors. More than a dozen “sister sites” have been founded using the YWLP model around the US and internationally. The theoretical basis of YWLP is self-determination theory (SDT), which posits that critical for positive youth development is feeling competent, connected to 关 others, and autonomous as a decision maker (Connell & Wellborn, 1991; Ryan & Deci, 2000). YWLP is a re搜索-based mentoring program that incorporates all of the recently recommended thirteen “best practices” in mentoring (Rhodes & DuBois, 2006).

研究

Since re搜索 suggests that individual mentoring may be optimal for developing a one-on-one relationship between the mentoring pair while a group format may be better for promoting positive peer interactions (Herrera, Vang, & Gale, 2002), YWLP incorporates both. 研究 on YWLP suggests that this combined group and one-on-one model may be particularly effective with adolescent girls for both promoting a variety of outcomes (Deutsch, Reitz-Krueger, Henneberger, Futch, & Lawrence, 2017) and supporting the development of the mentoring relationships (Griffith, Melton, & Deutsch, 2019). During the girls’ 7th grade school year each mentoring pair meets: 1) for at least twice a month for “outside time” doing mutually agreed upon activities (e.g., studying together, going to a cultural event) and 2) for two hours a week after school in a group of 6-8 mentor/mentee pairs and a facilitator. The group sessions are divided into time for pair connection and 主页work time, introduction of an YWLP skill (e.g., Gossip Guard), work on a service project (e.g., food drive), and group discussion of a challenging topic (Lawrence, Roberts, Sovik-Johnston, & Thorndike, 2009). All pairs attend YWLP structured activities once a semester on the college campus in addition to group field trips.

研究已经成立以来ywlp的一个组成部分。我们的研究包括评估通过采访中学参与者的自我报告的经验和女大学生的导师,焦点小组和调查以及搜集学校记录和女孩的成果老师报告。我们还进行了ywlp组的意见,并使用的,以帮助了解联合组和单对单辅导可以促进指导关系和女童的结果会发生什么。我们进行指导的几个纵向研究中,收集调查,并与女孩和导师参与计划五年后的采访。总体而言,我们的研究表明,ywlp先后为学弟学妹多重效益以及导师,它也开始显露促进积极变化的指导机制。

女中学生

In 2007, YWLP began a three-year evaluation using a randomized assignment experimental design that included 333 seventh grade girls in the program and control conditions. Three quarters or more of the program girls reported that YWLP helped them improve the way they listen to people with views different from their own, talk with their friends, support their friends, deal with their problems, talk with other kids at school, interact with people who are different from them, and think about their future (Levy, Deutsch, Henneberger, & Lawrence, 2010). In addition, two thirds or more of girls reported that YWLP helped them improve the way they think about themselves, get involved in school as a leader, make decisions about their behavior at school, and deal with sticky situations. From 2007-2010, the average match retention rate was 83% for the full academic year. Within this group, more than half of the 7th grade girls were matched for a second academic year (59%), and 22% were matched for 24 months or longer.

While most girls (program and control) reported declines in grade-point average, these declines were attenuated for program participants in 2009-2010; this cohort also had stable school bonding, which decreased for their peers over the school year (Henneberger, Deutsch, Lawrence, & Sovik-Johnson, 2013). Interviews with mentees reveal that girls reported changes in a number of areas as a result of participating in YWLP. These included social and relational skills (e.g., respecting others, trust), self-regulation (e.g., controlling their behavior and speech, improving their attitude), and self-awareness and understanding (e.g., taking on new social roles, becoming less shy) (Deutsch et al., 2017).

跟进的女孩谁是本次评测的一部分,五年后(2012- 2015年)显示,在参与ywlp与增加在同行的自尊,并在女孩的高级年高中拖欠的下降有关。

女大学生

By integrating academic material, service, and reflection for its mentors, YWLP embodies a service-learning model that is associated with positive outcomes for its participants. Compared to their peers, YWLP mentors reported stronger outcomes in ethnocultural empathy, competence, social acceptance, and autonomy after a year of mentoring. Mentors’ degree of perceived peer support moderated this relationship, where mentors who felt more supported had stronger outcomes compared to those who experienced less support from their YWLP peers (Marshall, Lawrence, Williams & Peugh, 2015). Marshall, Lawrence, & Peugh (2013) also found that how supported the college women mentors felt by their peers positively predicted their mentees’ self-reported improvement at the end of the program.

In another study, we used a mixed-methods approach to investigate how YWLP supports mentor commitment, prejudice reduction, and increased understanding and acceptance of diversity among the undergraduates serving as mentors (Lee, Germain, Lawrence, & Marshall, 2010). Results suggest that this model not only supports the longevity of mentor-mentee relationships, which is a critical aspect of effective mentoring, but also improves the mentors’ ability to interact with others across boundaries of difference. Over the four years of the study the average completion rate for the college women mentors in YWLP was 91%. In terms of cultural competence, YWLP mentors made greater gains in their tolerance of people from different backgrounds compared to non-YWLP college women. Through interviews, over half of the mentors commented on the importance of structural diversity and learning in YWLP (Lee, et al., 2010).

师徒关系

Results from another mixed-methods study using survey and observational data reveal that YWLP mentors and their seventh grade mentees report moderate-to-high satisfaction with the group experience, with no mean differences between groups (Deutsch, Wiggins, Henneberger, & Lawrence, 2013). Yet there were significant differences between groups in the group members’ (mentees) satisfaction with their one-on-one mentoring relationships. Although all groups demonstrated high levels of some positive social processes related to connectedness (e.g., fun), groups in which mentees reported higher levels of satisfaction with their one-on-one relationships engaged in more higher level positive social processes (e.g., caretaking). Groups in which mentee’s reported lower satisfaction with their one-on-one relationships demonstrated more negative social processes (e.g., disengagement).

We have also found that certain mentor factors are associated with mentee outcomes. Using data from 142 mentor-mentee pairs from 2005-06 through 2008-09, mentors' reported academic self-worth, parent relationship, and not being too autonomous were important pre-existing characteristics related to mentee satisfaction (Leyton-Armakan, Lawrence, Deutsch, Williams, & Henneberger, 2012). While these findings have implications for mentee selection among the college student population, they only accounted for a small amount of the variance in mentee satisfaction, suggesting that ongoing mentor training and support may be a more critical predictor of mentee outcome than mentor pre-existing characteristics.

Using interview data from girls and their mentors, Varga & Deutsch (2016) found that dyads who were more satisfied with the relationships at the end of the program demonstrated greater congruity and detail in their descriptions of their relationships. Girls and mentors who rated their relational satisfaction lower at the end of the program, however, tended to be more inconsistent and divergent from each other in their descriptions of their relationships. Misattunement in the relationship, (i.e., a failure to be attuned to and aligned with the mentee’s needs) was the most powerful distinguishing characteristic between high and low satisfaction relationships.

莱斯特和他的同事(2018),用于从收集ywlp的纵向研究的一部分,导师和学员的采访数据计划的参与后五年来检查对如何指导反省相互关系,在罗得岛鉴定(2005年)指导的模型的方法之一为支持关系的重要组成部分。结果表明,相互关系是由指导者和指导者作为两个维度的组合理解:共享关系的兴奋和体验同情。当存在由导师和受指导者投资于关系双方的真诚愿望感到共享关系的兴奋。体验同情是通过与导师联系,建议,并分享自己的相关经验规范自己的学弟学妹的经验的过程。

Griffith, Melton, & Deutsch (2019) used interviews with both girls and mentors to examine whether and how YWLP participants and mentors felt that the group component supported or inhibited the development of the one-on-one relationships. They found that: (1) regularly scheduled group meetings provided stability to dyads; (2) the integration of the group curriculum with the time set aside for one-on-one interactions fostered openness within dyads; (3) the group created a network that helped dyads be more attuned to their own relationships; and (4) peer group dynamics impacted dyads. From the data they develop a proposed process model of the way the group component influences the mentoring relationships across time, suggesting that group activities may be particularly supportive early in the program but may diminish in importance as the one-on-one relationships develop over time.

更多信息


  • 未来的研究

    我们目前专注于通过对计划和课程实施研究,以更好地理解课程如何支持并使用由ywlp导师。目前的研究是在节目的工作人员最好的支持下,不断改进计划联合开发。

  • 引用

    Connell, J. P., & Wellborn, J. G. (1991). Competence, autonomy, and relatedness: A motivational analysis of self-system processes. In M. R. Gunnar & L. A. Sroufe (Eds.), Self processes and development (Vol. 23, pp. 43 – 77). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Deutsch, N.L., Wiggins, A., Henneberger, A. & Lawrence, E. (2013). Combining Mentoring with Structured Group Activities: A potential after-school context for fostering relationships between girls and mentors. 青春期早期的杂志,33, 5-16。 DOI:10.1177 / 0272431612458037

    Deutsch, N.L., Reitz-Krueger, C., Henneberger, A., Futch, V., & Lawrence, E.C. (2017). “它给了我解决问题的途径和方式与人交谈”:从早期少女组合的基团和一个对一指导方案的结果。 青少年研究杂志,32(3) 291-322。网上第一DOI:10.1177 / 0743558416630813

    Griffith, A., Melton, T. & Deutsch, N.L. (2019). How Group Experiences Influence Mentor-Mentee Relational Development in a Combined Group and One-on-One Mentoring Program. 应用发展科学

    Henneberger, A. K., Deutsch, N. L., Lawrence, E. C., & Sovik-Johnston, A. (2012). The 女青年领袖计划: A Mentoring Program Targeted Toward Adolescent Girls. 学校心理健康, 1-12。

    Herrera, C.L., Vang, Z., & Gale, L.Y. (2002, February). Group mentoring: A study of mentoring groups in three programs. Philadelphia: Public/Private Ventures.

    Lawrence, E., Roberts, K., Sovik-Johnston, A., & Thorndike, A. (2009). 女青年领袖计划 Mentor Handbook (6th Edition). Charlottesville, VA: The Rector and Board of Visitors, University of Virginia. 

    Lee, J. M., Germain, L. J., Marshall, J., & Lawrence, E. (2010). “It opened my mind, my eyes. It was good.”: How college students navigate boundaries of difference in a volunteer mentoring program. Educational Horizons, 89(1), 33-46.

    莱斯特,上午,GOODLOE,C.L。,约翰逊,阁下,德语,N.L. (2018)。理解相互关系:拆包青年指导关系关系过程。 社会心理学杂志。 网上第一,1-18。 DOI:10.1002 / jcop22106。

    Levy, M., Deutsch, N., Henneberger, A. & Lawrence, E. (2011). The 女青年领袖计划 Final Report. U.S. Department of Education Grant Q184B070479.

    Leyton, J., Lawrence, E., Deutsch, N.L. & Henneberger, A. (in press) The relationship between initial characteristics of college women mentors and mentee satisfaction and functioning. 社会心理学杂志。

    Marshall, J. H., Lawrence, E. C., Williams, J. L., & Peugh, J. (2015). Mentoring as service-learning: The relationship between perceived peer support and outcomes for college women mentors. 教育评估研究47,38-46。

    Marshall, J.H., Lawrence, E.C., & Peugh, J. (2013). College women mentoring adolescent girls: The relationship between mentor peer support and mentee outcomes. 监督和指导:在学习上的伙伴关系,21(4): 444-462。 DOI:10.1080 / 13611267.2013.855860

    Rhodes, J.E.,&DuBois, D.L. (2006). Understanding and facilitating the youth mentoring movement. Social Policy Report, 20(3), 3–20.

    Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68 – 78.

    Varga, S. & Deutsch, N.L. (2016). Comparing both sides of the story: A comparative analysis of mentors and protégés relational perspectives. 一级预防杂志,37, 449-465。

  • 相关的教师